Proguard is a free Java application for Android that enables a person to perform functions such as reducing or minimizing the code which means removing unused code from a project, and code obfuscation which includes renaming the names of classes. Fields, etc., and improve the code such as inline the functions, etc. Therefore, one can summarize that Proguard helps in app shielding by:
- It shrinks the application’s size.
- It removes unused classes and methods that contribute to an Android application’s 64K method count limit.
- By obfuscating the code, it makes it difficult to reverse-engineer the application.
How does Proguard help in enabling application security?
Proguard Android is a tool that helps in creating a production-ready application in Android. It assists in reducing the code which results in an application running smoother and faster. Proguard is included by default in the Android Studio and can assist in a variety of ways, a few of which are listed below.
- It obfuscates the code, which means it changes the names to something smaller, such as A for MainViewModel. After obfuscating the app, reverse engineering becomes difficult.
- It shrinks the resources, ignoring resources that are not called by Class files, and are not used in our Android app, such as images from Drawable, and so on. It significantly helps in reducing the app’s size. To keep your app light and fast, you should always shrink it.
How to Enable Proguard in Android Studio?
1. Proguard is already integrated into our Android build system.
2. Proguard runs only when you build your application in release mode.
3. Having Proguard run is completely optional, but highly recommended.
4. In the Android Studio project, the minifyEnabled property in the build. gradle file enables and disables Proguard for release builds.
5. The minifyEnabled property is part of the buildTypes release block that controls the settings applied to release builds.
6. Set the minifyEnabled property to true to enable Proguard.
7. The get Default Proguard File(‘proguard-android. txt’) method obtains the default Proguard settings from the Android SDK tools/ proguard folder.
8. Android Studio adds the proguard rules. profile at the root of the module, which helps to add custom Proguard rules.
Benefits of Using Proguard on Your Android
So far, we have learned that Proguard is a tool that can assist in code shrinking, obfuscation, and optimization that is commonly employed during Android app development to reduce the APK size while also making it difficult for reverse engineers to decompile and understand its code.
- Shrinkage: Proguard’s shrinking feature helps in removing unnecessary classes, methods, and fields from the code to shrink its APK size which is particularly important for Android apps as smaller APK files are comparatively easy to download and for installation purposes.
- Obfuscation: Proguard’s Obfuscation feature assists in renaming the classes, methods, and fields with meaningless and useless names which makes it harder for attackers to decompile the APK and understand the logic when decompiling your app’s code. This helps in protecting intellectual property while also preventing any reverse engineering.
- Optimization: Proguard also performs code optimizations such as inlining methods and eliminating dead code which helps make the app run faster while consuming fewer system resources.
- Proguard Configuration: To customize different Proguard rules so that they meet various application module needs, you need to create the Proguard rules. profile in your app module. These custom rules will enable you to specify which classes, methods, and fields should be kept or obfuscated using different custom Proguard rules.
- Testing and Debugging: Once Proguard is enabled on your Android, you need to make sure that it does not compromise any functionality by shrinking and obfuscating code. This is because some operations involving reflection may require specific Proguard rules to correctly function and perform as expected. Therefore, thoroughly test your app after activating Proguard to make sure no unexpected behavior arises from its code shrinking/obfuscation rules.
- Increased app performance: Proguard optimizes the bytecode, which results in faster app performance.
Disadvantages of using the proguard application on Android
- Potential Bugs: Proguard can sometimes remove the code that is actually in use which results in bugs in the app. It is just an application that can fault sometimes which is why it is advised to set proguard rules to optimize your app shielding process.
- Configuration complexity: Sometimes it may be hard to comprehend the configuration of proguard Android, and incorrect configurations can cause the failure of the app, or lead to the app not functioning properly.
- Reflection-based code: Proguard may have difficulty in optimizing and obfuscating the reflection-based code, which can lead to issues with the app’s functionality.
Therefore, it is important to optimize your proguard Android application properly. Optimizing Proguard requires finding a balance between code size reduction, security measures, and maintaining the functionality of an application. Here are some optimization tips to maximize Proguard for your Android apps.
- Granular Configuration: For optimal Proguard usage, you need to be precise when creating the rules to retain only some necessary amount of code. Instead of keeping a whole package or class, keep the specific classes or methods that your app can rely on. This granular approach reduces the code bloat risk.
- Testing and Iteration: Once Proguard is enabled, test it using a release build to detect any deviations that can be caused by code obfuscation by Proguard as occasionally this protection can remove code necessary for your app for it function properly. Based on the results iteratively modify your configuration.
- Create Custom Proguard Rules: Add custom Proguard rules with specific uses that you have in mind – for example, to protect classes, methods, or fields that the Proguard application can unwittingly identify as unneeded sometimes. These custom Proguard rules can help prevent classes, methods, or fields that Proguard could incorrectly mark as unused from being deleted as quickly as possible.
Proguard Android is an effective tool for increasing both the app security and performance of Android applications. By shrinking APK sizes, optimizing code, and obfuscating apps, Proguard protects intellectual property while improving user experiences. For optimal use of Proguard, it must be configured properly, tested carefully, updated on best practices/updates regularly, as well as informed about best practices/updates – when used effectively it can become an important part of any Android developer’s toolbox which helps in making sure that apps that are both safe yet efficient!